You may be dyslexic if you...
...Read slowly and with much effort.
...Are often the one to solve the problem.
...Can't spell; have messy handwriting.
...Show terrific imagination in your writing.
...Have trouble remembering dates and names.
...Think out-of-the-box; grasp the big picture.
...Have difficulty retrieving and pronouncing spoken words.
...Have excellent vocabulary and ideas.
(S. Shaywitz, 2011)
From Rahul, D. R., & Ponniah, R. J. (2021). The modularity of dyslexia, Pediatrics and neonatology, 62, 240-248.
Dyslexia, in general, is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in nature. It is characterized by difficulties in word recognition, spelling, and decoding due to deficits in phonological processing irrespective of healthy IQ and effective educational provision. It is also characterized by decreased reading experience and comprehension that impedes the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.4 Although disordered reading was believed to be associated with issues in visual perception, perceptual memory, and motor abilities, it was overhauled with the conceptualization of dyslexia being a phonological problem.5 However, the deficit in the phonological skill of the dyslexics does not tightly interrelate with speech perception and auditory perception.6 Dyslexics have difficulties in phonological processing because they cannot decode sound segments from words and encode sounds to the letter and word correspondences, and thus affecting the reading skill and the overall reading experience. Other than challenges in language skills, particularly in reading, dyslexics also encounter difficulties with other skills that include spelling,writing, working memory, etc. According to the International Dyslexia Association, about 15-20% of the population worldwide is estimated to be symptomatic of dyslexia. (p. 241)
4.Lyon GR, Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA. A definition of dyslexia. Ann of Dyslexia 2003;53:1e14.
5.Vellutino FR, Fletcher JM, Snowling MJ, Scanlon DM. Specific reading disability (dyslexia): what have we learned in the past four decades? J Child Psychol Psychiatry2004;45:2e40.
6.Law JM, Vandermosten M, Ghesquiere P, Wouters J. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia.Front Hum Neurosci2014;8:482.
7.Moats LC, Dakin KE.Basic facts about dyslexia & other readingproblems. Maryland: The International Dyslexia Association;2008.
When seeking applications for astronauts, NASA "rejected people with pure histories of success and instead selected people who had significant failures and bounced back from them."